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The Fraunhofer IESE Series on Software and Systems Engineering

Software Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment

The Software Decision-Makers' Guide to Predictable Software Development

Authors: Trendowicz, Adam

  • Both the CoBRA method and its presentation are driven by and aimed at industrial practice
  • A complete and comprehensible specification of all relevant CoBRA processes is presented
  • The methodological concepts and their usage are illustrated by numerous practical examples and case studies from various software organizations
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eBook $69.99
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-30764-5
  • Digitally watermarked, DRM-free
  • Included format: PDF, EPUB
  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Download immediately after purchase
Hardcover $89.95
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-30763-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Softcover $89.95
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-43365-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
About this book

Software effort estimation is a key element of software project planning and management. Yet, in industrial practice, the important role of effort estimation is often underestimated and/or misunderstood.

In this book, Adam Trendowicz presents the CoBRA method  (an abbreviation for Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment) for estimating the effort required to successfully complete a software development project, which uniquely combines human judgment and measurement data in order to systematically create a custom-specific effort estimation model. CoBRA goes far beyond simply predicting the development effort; it supports project decision-makers in negotiating the project scope, managing project risks, benchmarking productivity, and directing improvement activities. To illustrate the method’s practical use, the book reports several real-world cases where CoBRA was applied in various industrial contexts. These cases represent different estimation contexts in terms of software project environment, estimation objectives, and estimation constraints.

This book is the result of a successful collaboration between the process management division of Fraunhofer IESE and many software companies in the field of software engineering technology transfer. It mainly addresses software practitioners who deal with planning and managing software development projects as part of their daily work, and is also of interest for students or courses specializing in software engineering or software project management.

About the authors

Adam Trendowicz is a senior consultant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering (IESE) in Kaiserslautern, Germany.  He has led software cost estimation and software measurement improvement activities in software companies of different sizes and from various domains (e.g., in Germany, Japan, and India), and he has been involved in functional software size estimation (Function Points Analysis) and productivity benchmarking in organizations from both the industry and the public sector. His research interests include measurement-based controlling of software products and processes, software quality modeling and evaluation, and technology validation by means of empirical methods.

Reviews

From the reviews:

“The scope of the book is the cost estimation, benchmarking, and risk assessment (CoBRA) method, launched in 1998. … The author thoroughly explains the basics and presents real practical cases throughout the book, in a way that any metrics engineer will be able to understand. Readers who finish the book will be able to set up a CoBRA method easily.” (Jair Merlo, Computing Reviews, September, 2013)

“The CoBRA method is a way of integrating the "Art" and the "Science" of software estimation, which is usually believed to be a "Black Art". The CoBRA method demystifies the Black Art of software estimation.” Yasushi Ishigai, Research Director at Research Center for Information Technology, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Japan

“We had not been able to imagine building our own software estimation models until we encountered the CoBRA method. As far as combining project data and expert judgment for the purpose of software effort estimation is concerned, we can definitely say that there are no other methods that are comparable to CoBRA.” Morihiko Shinoda, Deputy Department Manager, Yutaka Masaoka, Senior Engineer, Government, Public Sector Systems Division, Hitachi Solutions, Ltd., Japan

We used the CoBRA method for early-stage estimation of system integration projects. We were very satisfied with CoBRA because we could easily model relevant cost drivers that are specific to our own context as well as base development productivity. From limited use in one group, we have now expanded its use to department-wide activities.” Yasushi Aizaki, Manager at Systems Development Division, NTT Data Sekisui Systems, Japan

“I am convinced that the CoBRA method has a high potential of resolving "acquisition issues" related to the accountability of software costs in IT business, which enduringly persist on the side of IT customers. That's because the models are very simple and easy to build and can be understood even by non-IT professionals.” Hiroshi Iwakiri, General Manager, Information Systems Business Unit, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

“We had not been able to imagine building our own software estimation models until we encountered the CoBRA method. As far as combining project data and expert judgment for the purpose of software effort estimation is concerned, we can definitely say that there are no other methods that are comparable to CoBRA.” Morihiko Shinoda, Deputy Department Manager, Yutaka Masaoka, Senior Engineer, Government, Public Sector Systems Division, Hitachi Solutions, Ltd., Japan

We used the CoBRA method for early-stage estimation of system integration projects. We were very satisfied with CoBRA because we could easily model relevant cost drivers that are specific to our own context as well as base development productivity. From limited use in one group, we have now expanded its use to department-wide activities.” Yasushi Aizaki, Manager at Systems Development Division, NTT Data Sekisui Systems, Japan

“I am convinced that the CoBRA method has a high potential of resolving "acquisition issues" related to the accountability of software costs in IT business, which enduringly persist on the side of IT customers. That's because the models are very simple and easy to build and can be understood even by non-IT professionals.” Hiroshi Iwakiri, General Manager, Information Systems Business Unit, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation


Table of contents (12 chapters)

Buy this book

eBook $69.99
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-30764-5
  • Digitally watermarked, DRM-free
  • Included format: PDF, EPUB
  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Download immediately after purchase
Hardcover $89.95
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-30763-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Softcover $89.95
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-43365-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
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Bibliographic Information

Bibliographic Information
Book Title
Software Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment
Book Subtitle
The Software Decision-Makers' Guide to Predictable Software Development
Authors
Series Title
The Fraunhofer IESE Series on Software and Systems Engineering
Copyright
2013
Publisher
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright Holder
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
eBook ISBN
978-3-642-30764-5
DOI
10.1007/978-3-642-30764-5
Hardcover ISBN
978-3-642-30763-8
Softcover ISBN
978-3-642-43365-8
Series ISSN
2193-8199
Edition Number
1
Number of Pages
XXVI, 322
Topics